American Airlines Flight 1Thursday March 1, 1962
After taking off from Idlewild Airport and reaching a height of 1,500 feet, the aircraft made a left turn but continued to roll until it was inverted and crashed into Jamaica Bay approximately 3 miles southwest of the control tower. A rudder control malfunction which caused a full unwanted rudder deployment, yaw, sideslip and roll which led to loss of control of the aircraft. This was caused by the use of an improper tool at the manufacturing plant to wrap the rudder servo unit's wiring, damaging the wires and leading to a short circuit. There is speculation that the accident was actually caused by the captain putting the aircraft in a steep 45 degree bank which resulted in the loss of control of the aircraft.